1 . Which disorder is characterized by the formation of abnormal new bone at an accelerated rate beginning with excessive resorption of spongy bone?
Question 2 . Considering the pathophysiology of osteoporosis, what are the effects of extracellular signal regulated kinases (ERKs) and receptor activator of RANKL on osteoblasts and osteoclasts?
ERKs increase the life span of osteoclasts and RANKL decreases the life span of osteoblasts .
ERKs and RANKL increase the life span of osteoclasts and decrease the life span of osteoblasts .
ERKs and RANKL increase the life span of osteoblasts and decrease the life span of osteoclasts .
ERKs increase the life span of osteoblasts and RANKL decreases the life span of osteoclasts .
Question 3 . _____ is the temporary displacement of two bones in which the bone surfaces partially lose contact .
Question 4 . What is the diagnosis of a person who has tennis elbow characterized by tissue degeneration or irritation of the extensor carpi brevis tendon?
Question 5 . Which type of osteoporosis would a person develop after having the left leg in a cast for 8 weeks to treat a compound displaced fracture of the tibia and fibula?
Question 6 . Bone death as a result of osteomyelitis is because of
formation of immune complexes at the site of infection .
localized ischemia .
TNF-? and IL-1 .
impaired nerve innervation at the site of infection .
Question 7 . By the time osteoporosis is visible on x-ray, up to ____% of bone has been lost .
Question 8 . Osteochondrosis is caused by a(n)
imbalance between calcitonin and parathyroid hormone .
nutritional deficiency of calcium and phosphorus .
bacterial infection of the bone .
vascular impairment and trauma to bone .
Question 9 . Ewing sarcoma arises from
bone marrow .
bone-producing mesenchymal cells .
metadiaphysis of long bones .
embryonal osteocytes .
Question 10 . An insufficient dietary intake of vitamin _____ can lead to rickets in children .
Question 11 . Which protein, absent in muscle cells of Duchenne muscular dystrophy, mediates the anchoring of skeletal muscles fibers to the basement membrane?
Question 12 . Which serum laboratory test is elevated in all forms of osteogenesis imperfecta?
Question 13 . Cerebral palsy is usually a result of
brain ischemia during birth .
congenital defects .
genetic defect .
Question 14 . What diagnosis is given when the infant’s hip maintains contact with the acetabulum, but is not well seated within the hip joint?
Question 15 . The total mass of muscle in the body can be estimated from which serum laboratory test value?
Blood urea nitrogen
Question 16 . Which malignancy is characterized by slow-growing lesions that usually have depressed centers and rolled borders and are frequently located on the face and neck?
Squamous cell carcinoma
Basal cell carcinoma
Question 17 . Which cell is thought to be the progenitor cell of Kaposi sarcoma?
Question 18 . Cutaneous vasculitis develops from the deposit of _____ in small blood vessels as a toxic response allergen .
Question 19 . Which type of psoriasis is characterized by lesions on the elbows and knees that are well demarcated, thick, silvery, scaly, and erythematous?
Question 20 . An older adult man states he has a sore above his lip that has not healed and is getting bigger . The nurse observes a red scaly patch with an ulcerated center and sharp margins . The nurse recognizes these features as commonly associated with Bowen disease, a form of
Kaposi sarcoma .
malignant melanoma .
basal cell carcinoma .
squamous cell carcinoma .
Question 21 . What is a common source of tinea corporis?
Question 22 . Which skin disorder has as its hallmark clinical manifestation skin lesions that rupture, creating a thin, flat, honey-colored crust?
Question 23 . Bullous impetigo is caused by a strain of _____ that produces an exfoliative toxin, resulting in a disruption in cellular adhesion .
Question 24 . Which immunoglobulin is elevated in atopic dermatitis?
Question 25 . Which clinical manifestation is considered the hallmark of atopic dermatitis?
Vesicles that burst and form crusts